Spine surgeons provide care of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine problems through a combination of appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and education of patients. Orthopaedic care of spinal injury and disease is a multidisciplinary approach that may include the assistance of physical therapists, orthotists, neurologists, and neurosurgeons. Back pain can originate from an injury or from any of one of hundreds of diseases, a degenerative process, or stress on the different structures of the spine, such as the bones, muscles, ligaments, joints, or nerves. A spine specialist generally has long-standing experience or special educational training, such as a fellowship, in the treatment of these disorders. Such special treatment includes ergonomic training, physical therapy, pain management, and surgical procedures. There are difficult decisions to be made about the appropriate treatment of spine problems. The specialty trained orthopaedic spine surgeon is your best advocate when facing these difficult decisions.